General Instructions

Section references are to the Internal Revenue Code unless otherwise
Future developments. For the latest information about developments
related to Form W-9 and its instructions, such as legislation enacted
after they were published, go to

Purpose of Form

An individual or entity (Form W-9 requester) who is required to file an
information return with the IRS must obtain your correct taxpayer
identification number (TIN) which may be your social security number
(SSN), individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN), adoption
taxpayer identification number (ATIN), or employer identification number
(EIN), to report on an information return the amount paid to you, or other
amount reportable on an information return. Examples of information
returns include, but are not limited to, the following.
• Form 1099-INT (interest earned or paid)

By signing the filled-out form, you:
1. Certify that the TIN you are giving is correct (or you are waiting for a
number to be issued),
2. Certify that you are not subject to backup withholding, or
3. Claim exemption from backup withholding if you are a U.S. exempt
payee. If applicable, you are also certifying that as a U.S. person, your
allocable share of any partnership income from a U.S. trade or business
is not subject to the withholding tax on foreign partners’ share of
effectively connected income, and
4. Certify that FATCA code(s) entered on this form (if any) indicating
that you are exempt from the FATCA reporting, is correct. See What is
FATCA reporting, later, for further information.
Note: If you are a U.S. person and a requester gives you a form other
than Form W-9 to request your TIN, you must use the requester’s form if
it is substantially similar to this Form W-9.
Definition of a U.S. person. For federal tax purposes, you are
considered a U.S. person if you are:
• An individual who is a U.S. citizen or U.S. resident alien;
• A partnership, corporation, company, or association created or
organized in the United States or under the laws of the United States;
• An estate (other than a foreign estate); or
• A domestic trust (as defined in Regulations section 301.7701-7).
Special rules for partnerships. Partnerships that conduct a trade or
business in the United States are generally required to pay a withholding
tax under section 1446 on any foreign partners’ share of effectively
connected taxable income from such business. Further, in certain cases
where a Form W-9 has not been received, the rules under section 1446
require a partnership to presume that a partner is a foreign person, and
pay the section 1446 withholding tax. Therefore, if you are a U.S. person
that is a partner in a partnership conducting a trade or business in the
United States, provide Form W-9 to the partnership to establish your
U.S. status and avoid section 1446 withholding on your share of
partnership income.
In the cases below, the following person must give Form W-9 to the
partnership for purposes of establishing its U.S. status and avoiding
withholding on its allocable share of net income from the partnership
conducting a trade or business in the United States.
• In the case of a disregarded entity with a U.S. owner, the U.S. owner
of the disregarded entity and not the entity;
• In the case of a grantor trust with a U.S. grantor or other U.S. owner,
generally, the U.S. grantor or other U.S. owner of the grantor trust and
not the trust; and
• In the case of a U.S. trust (other than a grantor trust), the U.S. trust
(other than a grantor trust) and not the beneficiaries of the trust.
Foreign person. If you are a foreign person or the U.S. branch of a
foreign bank that has elected to be treated as a U.S. person, do not use
Form W-9. Instead, use the appropriate Form W-8 or Form 8233 (see
Pub. 515, Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign
Nonresident alien who becomes a resident alien. Generally, only a
nonresident alien individual may use the terms of a tax treaty to reduce
or eliminate U.S. tax on certain types of income. However, most tax
treaties contain a provision known as a “saving clause.” Exceptions
specified in the saving clause may permit an exemption from tax to
continue for certain types of income even after the payee has otherwise
become a U.S. resident alien for tax purposes.
If you are a U.S. resident alien who is relying on an exception
contained in the saving clause of a tax treaty to claim an exemption
from U.S. tax on certain types of income, you must attach a statement
to Form W-9 that specifies the following five items.
1. The treaty country. Generally, this must be the same treaty under
which you claimed exemption from tax as a nonresident alien.
2. The treaty article addressing the income.

3. The article number (or location) in the tax treaty that contains the
saving clause and its exceptions.

4. The type and amount of income that qualifies for the exemption
from tax.

5. Sufficient facts to justify the exemption from tax under the terms of
the treaty article.

• Form 1099-DIV (dividends, including those from stocks or mutual
• Form 1099-MISC (various types of income, prizes, awards, or gross
• Form 1099-B (stock or mutual fund sales and certain other
transactions by brokers)
• Form 1099-S (proceeds from real estate transactions)
• Form 1099-K (merchant card and third party network transactions)
• Form 1098 (home mortgage interest), 1098-E (student loan interest),
1098-T (tuition)
• Form 1099-C (canceled debt)
• Form 1099-A (acquisition or abandonment of secured property)
Use Form W-9 only if you are a U.S. person (including a resident
alien), to provide your correct TIN.
If you do not return Form W-9 to the requester with a TIN, you might
be subject to backup withholding. See What is backup withholding,

Example. Article 20 of the U.S.-China income tax treaty allows an
exemption from tax for scholarship income received by a Chinese
student temporarily present in the United States. Under U.S. law, this
student will become a resident alien for tax purposes if his or her stay in
the United States exceeds 5 calendar years. However, paragraph 2 of
the first Protocol to the U.S.-China treaty (dated April 30, 1984) allows
the provisions of Article 20 to continue to apply even after the Chinese
student becomes a resident alien of the United States. A Chinese
student who qualifies for this exception (under paragraph 2 of the first
protocol) and is relying on this exception to claim an exemption from tax
on his or her scholarship or fellowship income would attach to Form
W-9 a statement that includes the information described above to
support that exemption.

If you are a nonresident alien or a foreign entity, give the requester the
appropriate completed Form W-8 or Form 8233.

Backup Withholding

What is backup withholding? Persons making certain payments to you
must under certain conditions withhold and pay to the IRS 28% of such
payments. This is called “backup withholding.” Payments that may be
subject to backup withholding include interest, tax-exempt interest,
dividends, broker and barter exchange transactions, rents, royalties,
nonemployee pay, payments made in settlement of payment card and
third party network transactions, and certain payments from fishing boat
operators. Real estate transactions are not subject to backup
You will not be subject to backup withholding on payments you
receive if you give the requester your correct TIN, make the proper
certifications, and report all your taxable interest and dividends on your
tax return.
Payments you receive will be subject to backup withholding if:
1. You do not furnish your TIN to the requester,
2. You do not certify your TIN when required (see the instructions for
Part II for details),
3. The IRS tells the requester that you furnished an incorrect TIN,
4. The IRS tells you that you are subject to backup withholding
because you did not report all your interest and dividends on your tax
return (for reportable interest and dividends only), or
5. You do not certify to the requester that you are not subject to
backup withholding under 4 above (for reportable interest and dividend
accounts opened after 1983 only).
Certain payees and payments are exempt from backup withholding.
See Exempt payee code, later, and the separate Instructions for the
Requester of Form W-9 for more information.
Also see Special rules for partnerships, earlier.

What is FATCA Reporting?

The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) requires a
participating foreign financial institution to report all United States
account holders that are specified United States persons. Certain
payees are exempt from FATCA reporting. See Exemption from FATCA
reporting code, later, and the Instructions for the Requester of Form
W-9 for more information.

Updating Your Information

You must provide updated information to any person to whom you
claimed to be an exempt payee if you are no longer an exempt payee
and anticipate receiving reportable payments in the future from this
person. For example, you may need to provide updated information if
you are a C corporation that elects to be an S corporation, or if you no
longer are tax exempt. In addition, you must furnish a new Form W-9 if
the name or TIN changes for the account; for example, if the grantor of a
grantor trust dies.


Failure to furnish TIN. If you fail to furnish your correct TIN to a
requester, you are subject to a penalty of $50 for each such failure
unless your failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect.
Civil penalty for false information with respect to withholding. If you
make a false statement with no reasonable basis that results in no
backup withholding, you are subject to a $500 penalty.